Existing domestic restoration targets

Existing targets:

17,252,354 ha

Forest land

Land where forest is, or is planned to become, the dominant land use

If the land is without trees, there are two options:

Planted forests and woodlots

Planting of trees on formerly forested land. Native species or exotics and for various purposes, fuel- wood, timber, building, poles, fruit production, etc.

Existing restoration targets

2,600,000 ha

50,000 ha

Total: 2,650,000 ha

Natural regeneration

Natural regeneration of formerly forested land. Often the site is highly degraded and no longer able to fulfill its past function – e.g. agriculture. If the site is heavily degraded and no longer has seed sources, some planting will probably be required.

Existing restoration targets

750,000 ha

If the land  is degraded forests:


Enhancement of existing forests and woodlands of diminished quality and stocking, e.g., by reducing fire and grazing and by liberation thinning, enrichment planting, etc.

Existing restoration targets

13,388,000 ha

350,000 ha

16,800 ha

Total: 13,754,800 ha

Agricultural land

Land which is being managed to produce food

If the land  is under permanent management:


Establishment and management of trees on active agricultural land (under shifting agriculture), either through planting or regeneration, to improve crop productivity, provide dry season fodder, increase soil fertility, enhance water retention, etc.

Existing restoration targets


If it is under intermittent management:

Improved fallow

Establishment and management of trees on fallow agricultural land to improve productivity, e.g. through fire control, extending the fallow period, etc., with the knowledge and intention that eventually this land will revert back to active agriculture.

Existing restoration targets


Protective land and buffers

Land that is vulnerable to, or critical in safeguarding against, catastrophic events

If degraded mangrove:

Mangrove restoration

Establishment or enhancement of mangroves along coastal areas and in estuaries.

Existing restoration targets

97,554 ha

If other protective land or buffer:

Watershed protection and erosion control

Establishment and enhancement of forests on very steep sloping land, along water courses, in areas that naturally flood and around critical water bodies.

Existing restoration targets


More information

Detailed Analysis: Relevant Content for Vietnam's Domestic Plans and Multilateral Programs

REDD+ Strategy

[i] NRAP – page 3

National Climate Strategies & Plans

  • National Target Program – Response to Climate Change (NTP-RCC)
    • Mangrove Restoration: increase from 209,741 to 307,295 by 2015[i] (+97,554 ha)
  • National Actin Plan on Green growth in Vietnam For the Period of 2014-2020 (March 2014) (Decision 403)
    • Activity 23: Forestation, improving forest quality and SFM (2013-2020)[ii]
      • Increase progress toward 45% forest coverage in 2020
        • 13.3 Mha forest in 2010 (42.8%) to 13.953 Mha (45%) requires an increase of 653,150 ha
        • Develop forest on un-used land and barren hills, mangrove forests, coastal forests
  • NFPDP (Jan. 2012) (National Forest Protection and Development Plan 2011-2020) [iii]
    • 2020 forest cover goal is 45%[1]
    • Protect and develop sustainably existing forest: 13,388,000 ha and 750,000 ha regenerated forest
    • Increasing forest area to 15,100,000 ha by 2020
      • An increase of 1,712,000 ha (from 2010/11 level)
    • Forest Development (2011-2020)
      • Afforestation: 2,600,000 ha (new production and post-harvesting replantation)
      • Zoning for Regeneration: 750,000 ha
      • Forest rehabilitation in poor natural forests: 350,000 ha
      • Scattered tree planting: 500 million trees (50,000 ha (based on trees per ha used in NFDS))
  • National Forest Development Strategy (2006-2020) (NFDS) ***Assuming the NFDS is replaced by NFPDP 2011-2020***
    • To sustainably establish, manage, protect, develop and use 16.24 Mha[iv] of “land planned for forestry” (49% of land mass)
    • Increase forest cover from 43% to 47%[v] by 2020[2] (+1.273 Mha)
    • Forest cover[3] at 13.3 Mha (42.8%) in 2010[vi] by 2020  and associated Economic Tasks include[vii] (totaling 16.24 Mha[4]): three forest types need to be sustainably established, managed, protected, utilized and developed (natural forests/well managed; forest plantations/expanded; agroforestry/strengthened; bare land/forestry development)
      • 8.4 Mha production forest – including:
        • 4.15 Mha plantation forest (industrial and NTFP)
          • 1 Mha est. by 2010 (subtract and new total = 3.15 Mha plantation post-2010)
          • 1 Mha for next phase
            • 0.3 Mha/year reforested after harvesting
          • 3.63 Mha natural production forest (SFM)
          • 0.62 Mha ANR and agroforestry area
        • 5.68 Mha plan/manage/effective use of protection forest (5.28 Mha watershed protection[viii]) (by 2010)
        • 2.16 Mha plan/manage/effective use of special-use forests (by 2010)
        • Zoning for 0.8 Mha of forest regeneration (ANR) (by 2010)
        • Other: annually plant 200 million scattered tree planting = 100,000 ha of plantation forests to serve local needs[ix]
    • Table 3: Projected Implementation progress 2006-2010[x]
      • Regeneration: 0.8 Mha
      • New afforestation: 750,000 ha (2.25 Mha 2020 goal (1.5 Mha more))
      • Afforestation special use forest: 250,000 ha
      • Scattered tree planting: 1 billion trees (2 billion more by 2020)
        • 100,000 ha/yr for 10 years = 1 Mha for local use
    • Post 2010 Plans: Table 2: Orientation for Planning of Forest and Forest Land Areas[xi]
      • Forested land planned change from 14.07 Mha (2010) to 15.57 Mha (2020)
      • Planned change in forested land area from 2010-2020 = 1,500,000 ha to meet 47% 2020 goal
        • Based on increase of 1.5 Mha plantation forest in production forest zone[5]
        • Cost: Sustainable forest management and development program (above) = 28,220.80 VND billion (2011-2020)  = $1.3 B

Restoration Target: 17,235,554 ha

Mangrove: 97,554 ha

SFM/Silviculture: 13,388,000 ha

A/R: 2,600,000 ha

ANR: 750,000 ha

Enrichment Planting (Silviculture): 350,000 ha

Fuelwood planting: 50,000 ha

[1] The 45% goal is the same in the National Action Program on REDD (2012)

[2] 13.3 Mha forest cover in 2010 (42.8% of land mass) – close to 2010 goal from Five Million Hectares Reforestation Program (661 program) to have 43% forest cover.

[3] Forestland (administrative ha’s) in 2010 is 14.76 Mha (REDD+ program background document (page 6-8)) and thus the goal is to increase to 16.24 Mha forestland in 2020 which is an increase of 1.48 Mha which is approximately the exact amount of planned increase for plantation forests (1.5 Mha) in the Post 2010 plans.

[4] Planned forest area is 16.24 Mha and physically forested area (for 2020) is 15.57 Mha (NFDS page 44)

[5] The area of forest rehabilitation and agroforestry transition from 1.82Mha to 0.62Mha = 1.2 Mha (2010-2020) and the Re-afforested land after harvesting moves from 0.3 to 0.0. The combined 1.2 in rehan/agroforestry and 0.3 under A/R add up to the 1.5 Mha. This is the difference between 2010 and 2020 under ‘forested land’ (14.07 Mha to 15.57 Mha) (NFDS page 44). This is further broken down in subcategory ‘Production Forest’ where the only positive 2010-2020 transition is plantation forest that increases from 2.65 to 4.15 Mha (+1.5 Mha) between 2010-2020 (NFDS page 44).

[i] R-PP – page 37; [ii] Decision 403 – page 15; [iii] NFPDP – page 2; [iv] NFDS – page 11; [v] NFDS – page 11, 13; [vi] R-PP – page 32; [vii] NFDS – page 12; [viii] NFDS – page 13; [ix] NFDS – page 33; [x] NFDS – page 45-49; [xi] NFDS – page 44

Emission Reductions Program Idea Note (ER-PIN)

  • ER-PIN (May 2014): Sustainable management of forests through low emissions development planning for green growth in the north central agro-ecological region
    • Overall Cost: $37.5 M (10 years)
    • 5.1 Mha region (2.3 Mha forested in 2012 & 95% natural)
    • Section 5.3: description/justification of planned/ongoing activities
      • Production ‘forestland’ allocation & wider use of co-management approaches[i]
      • Forestry Sector Strategy[ii]
        • Production forestland allocation (FLA): 750,000 ha [1](bare/degraded forestland) allocated for forest owners for community forest management and a focus on reforestation and ANR
        • Allocation of additional plantations for extended rotation lengths
        • FLA financial plan: $6 M over 10 years[iii]
    • Expected ER reductions for 2016-2020 per Intervention[iv]
      • Enrichment planting: 300,000 ha (target) [1]
      • New planting on barren land & replanting long rotation species: 200,000 ha (target) [1]
    • Proposed Program Activities (related to land tenure) (Table 14.1)[v]
      • FLA [2]: Allocation of barren land for planting production forest: 620,000 ha (available - not included in total)
      • New forest planting (on selected barren land) and replanting after harvesting: 600,000 ha (available -not included in total)
[1] Hectares already accounted for under NFPDP (2012) and excluded for double counting purposes
[2] Some FLA is for planned acacia forest (ER-PIN page 27)

[i] ER-PIN page 19; [ii] ER-PIN page 22; [iii] ER-PIN page 74; [iv] ER-PIN page 53; [v] ER-PIN page 64

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

  • 5005 PIF: Integrating Biodiversity Conservation Resilience and Sustainable Forest Management in Central Annamite Landscapes (Endorsed 10/2014)  (funding: $3.8 M grant + $55.5 M co-financing = $59.3 M)
    • Expected Outcomes/Outputs: sub-component 1.3 (funding $1.7 M)
      • 2,000 ha ecological restoration zone prioritized
      • WWF project
        • 4,800 ha communal forest restored
    • Sub-component 2.3 (funding: $305,917): 10,000 ha communal forest restored

Restoration Target: 16,800 ha


ER-PIN (May 2014). Sustainable Management of Forests Through Low Emissions Development Planning for Green Growth in the North Centro Agro-Ecological Region. Vietnam. https://www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/sites/fcp/files/2014/May/Vietnam%20ER-PIN%20May%2026.pdf

GEF (10/2014).PIF:  Integrating Biodiversity Conservation, Climate Resilience and Sustainable Forest Management in Central Annamite Landscapes.  http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/Multi%20Focal%20Area/Vietnam%20-%20(5005)%20-%20Integrating%20Biodiversity%20Conservation,%20Climate%20Res/Att.1-ADB%20MFA%20PIF%20GMS-FBP%20Central%20Annamite%20Vietnam%2019%20Sept%202012.pdf

National Action Plan on Green Growth In Vietnam For the Period of 2014-2020 (March 2014). The Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Prime Minister. http://www.renewableenergy.org.vn/index.php?mact=Uploads,m0b3f8,getfile,1&m0b3f8upload_id=336&m0b3f8returnid=103&page=103

NFDS (2007). Viet Nam Forestry Development Strategy 2006-2020. Socialist Republic of Vietnam, Decision No. 18/2007/QD-TTg. http://theredddesk.org/sites/default/files/viet_nam_forestry_development_strategy_2.pdf

NFPDP (2012). National Forest Protection and Development Plan for the period 2011-2020. http://theredddesk.org/sites/default/files/57-qd-ttg.pdf

R-PP (11/18/2011). Readiness Preparation Proposal, Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Forest Carbon Partnership Facility. https://www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/sites/forestcarbonpartnership.org/files/Documents/PDF/Nov2011/Viet%20Nam%20R-PP_Revised%2018%20November2011.pdf