Existing domestic restoration targets

Existing targets:

80,105 ha

Forest land

Land where forest is, or is planned to become, the dominant land use

If the land is without trees, there are two options:

Planted forests and woodlots

Planting of trees on formerly forested land. Native species or exotics and for various purposes, fuel- wood, timber, building, poles, fruit production, etc.

Existing restoration targets

69,605 ha

Natural regeneration

Natural regeneration of formerly forested land. Often the site is highly degraded and no longer able to fulfill its past function – e.g. agriculture. If the site is heavily degraded and no longer has seed sources, some planting will probably be required.

Existing restoration targets

10,500 ha

If the land  is degraded forests:


Enhancement of existing forests and woodlands of diminished quality and stocking, e.g., by reducing fire and grazing and by liberation thinning, enrichment planting, etc.

Existing restoration targets

0 ha

Agricultural land

Land which is being managed to produce food

If the land  is under permanent management:


Establishment and management of trees on active agricultural land (under shifting agriculture), either through planting or regeneration, to improve crop productivity, provide dry season fodder, increase soil fertility, enhance water retention, etc.

Existing restoration targets

0 ha

If it is under intermittent management:

Improved fallow

Establishment and management of trees on fallow agricultural land to improve productivity, e.g. through fire control, extending the fallow period, etc., with the knowledge and intention that eventually this land will revert back to active agriculture.

Existing restoration targets

0 ha

Protective land and buffers

Land that is vulnerable to, or critical in safeguarding against, catastrophic events

If degraded mangrove:

Mangrove restoration

Establishment or enhancement of mangroves along coastal areas and in estuaries.

Existing restoration targets

0 ha

If other protective land or buffer:

Watershed protection and erosion control

Establishment and enhancement of forests on very steep sloping land, along water courses, in areas that naturally flood and around critical water bodies.

Existing restoration targets

0 ha

More information

Detailed Analysis: Relevant Content for Lebanon's Domestic Plans and Multilateral Programs

National Climate Strategies & Plans

Restoration Target: 69,605 ha

[1] According to Lebanon’s 2004 National Report to the Fifth Session of the United Nations Forum on Forests there was a A/R plan for 18,000 ha and it was anticipated that the MoE would develop plans for a total of 200,000 ha to be planted over the following 30-40 years (UNFF, page 7)

[2] Competing program with MoE National Plan for Afforestation

[3] Same figure as the MoE Reforestation Initiative, and therefore not included to avoid double counting

[4] Lebanon total land area is 1,044,906 ha and has forest cover on 139,376 ha (13.2%). To achieve a 7% gain to reach the 20% forest cover goal the country must reforest 69,605 ha (FAO (2010). FRA 2010: Lebanon).

[i] MoE  - Reforestation; [ii] NAP – page 176

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

  • 5229: PIF – Sustainable Land Management in the Qaroun Watershed (2013 – duration 48 months) (Financing: $3,187,671 grant + $15,300,000 co-financing = $18,487,671)
    • SLM: 30,500 ha (10,500 ha dryland forest (ANR); 20,000 ha rangeland; 40,000 ha arable land (reduced pollution))[i]
  • 3028: PIF – SFM Safeguarding and Restoring Lebanon’s Woodland Resources (2012 – duration: 60 months) (Finance: $980,000 grant + $1,275,000 co-financing = $2,255,000)
    • Comp. 2: Demonstration of innovative forest restoration technologies[ii]
    • Output 2.2: Afforestation and ecosystem restoration measures on public land implemented through participatory approaches[iii]
  • 5125: PIF – Sustainable Agricultural Livelihoods in Marginal  Areas (SALMA) (2012 – duration 60 months) (Finance: $7,147,635 grant + $26,100,000 co-financing = $33,247,635): Comp. 2 is supporting reforestation and afforestation in upstream basins to enhance water management and reduce run-off[iv] ($9.5 M)

Restoration Target: 10,500 ha

[i] GEF 5229 PIF – page 3; [ii] GEF 3028 – page 2; [iii] GEF 3028 – page 26; [iv] GEF 5125 PIF – page 2


EU (2014). EU helps Lebanon plant 40 million trees. http://www.enpi-info.eu/medportal/news/latest/37988/EU-helps-Lebanon-plant-40-million-trees

FAO (2010). Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Lebanon. http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/al549E/al549E.pdf

GEF 3028 (2012). Request for CEO Endorsement - SFM Safeguarding and Restoring Lebanon’s Woodland Resources. http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/SFM/Lebanon%20-%20Safeguarding%20and%20Restoring%20PMIS%203028/03-03-08%20CEO%20approval_final%20version%203March08.doc 

GEF 5125 (2012). Sustainable Agricultural Livelihoods in Marginal Areas (SALMA). http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/Climate%20Change/Lebanon%20-%20(5125)%20-%20Sustainable%20Agricultural%20Livelihoods%20in%20Marginal%20A/Lebanon%20SALMA%20GEF%205%20PIF%20(09-05-12).docx

GEF 5229 (2013). PIF: Sustainable Land Management in the Qaroun Watershed. http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/Land%20Degradation/Lebanon%20-%20(5229)%20-%20Sustainable%20Land%20Management%20in%20the%20Qaroun%20Watershe/01-8-13%20PIF%20Document%20Revised%20clean%20.pdf

LRI (n.d.). Lebanon Reforestation Initiative – Forest Planting. http://lri-lb.org/#planting 

MoA (2013). A New Development Goal for Lebanon: the 40 Million Forest Trees. Rural Development and Natural Resources Department, Ministry of Agriculture. http://www.efimed.efi.int/files/attachments/efimed/events/scisem_2013/05.mohanna_new_development_goal_for_lebanon.pdf

MoE (n.d.). Reforestation. Ministry of Environment, Republic of Lebanon. (accessed 03/02/15). http://www.moe.gov.lb/Sectors/Biodiversity-Forests/Sub-Sector/Sub-Sector/Reforestation/%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%AD%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%AC.aspx?lang=en-us

NAP (2003). National Action Programme to Combat Desertification, Lebanon. Ministry of Agriculture. http://www.unccd.int/ActionProgrammes/lebanon-eng2003.pdf

UNFF (2004). National Report to the Fifth Session of the United Nations Forum on Forests, Lebanon. http://www.un.org/esa/forests/pdf/national_reports/unff5/lebanon.pdf