Existing domestic restoration targets

Existing targets:

10,400,000 ha

Forest land

Land where forest is, or is planned to become, the dominant land use

If the land is without trees, there are two options:

Planted forests and woodlots

Planting of trees on formerly forested land. Native species or exotics and for various purposes, fuel- wood, timber, building, poles, fruit production, etc.

Existing restoration targets

300,000 ha

Natural regeneration

Natural regeneration of formerly forested land. Often the site is highly degraded and no longer able to fulfill its past function – e.g. agriculture. If the site is heavily degraded and no longer has seed sources, some planting will probably be required.

Existing restoration targets

800,000 ha

If the land  is degraded forests:


Enhancement of existing forests and woodlands of diminished quality and stocking, e.g., by reducing fire and grazing and by liberation thinning, enrichment planting, etc.

Existing restoration targets

4,500,000 ha

1,000,000 ha

Total: 5,500,000 ha

Agricultural land

Land which is being managed to produce food

If the land  is under permanent management:


Establishment and management of trees on active agricultural land (under shifting agriculture), either through planting or regeneration, to improve crop productivity, provide dry season fodder, increase soil fertility, enhance water retention, etc.

Existing restoration targets

3,000,000 ha

If it is under intermittent management:

Improved fallow

Establishment and management of trees on fallow agricultural land to improve productivity, e.g. through fire control, extending the fallow period, etc., with the knowledge and intention that eventually this land will revert back to active agriculture.

Existing restoration targets

600,000 ha

Protective land and buffers

Land that is vulnerable to, or critical in safeguarding against, catastrophic events

If degraded mangrove:

Mangrove restoration

Establishment or enhancement of mangroves along coastal areas and in estuaries.

Existing restoration targets

100,000 ha

If other protective land or buffer:

Watershed protection and erosion control

Establishment and enhancement of forests on very steep sloping land, along water courses, in areas that naturally flood and around critical water bodies.

Existing restoration targets

100,000 ha

More information

Detailed Analysis: Relevant Content for India's Domestic Plans and Multilateral Programs

National Climate Strategies & Plans

  • National Action Plan on Climate Change (approved 2014[1])
    • National Mission for a Green India (GIM)
    • 10 year program = 46,000 Rs[i] crore = $7.2B
      • Tentative mission costs for FLR relevant activities below = 29,330 Rs crore = $4,614,544,627
    • Sub-Mission 1: Qualitative improvement of forest cover and improving ecosystem services[ii]: 4,900,000 ha
      • 1,500,000 ha: moderately dense forest, but with degradation
        • 2,250 Rs Crores ($353,996,775)
      • 3,000,000 ha: eco-restoration of degraded open forests
        • 7,680 Rs Crores ($1,208,308,992)
      • 400,000 ha grassland
    • Sub-Mission 2: ecosystem restoration and increase forest cover: 1.8 Mha[iii] and 9,200 Rs Crores ($1,447,453,480)
      • 600,000 ha: rehabilitation of shifting cultivation areas (agroforestry/silviculture/improved fallow)
      • 800,000 ha: Restoring scrublands (ANR)
      • 100,000 ha: restoring and afforestation with Seabuckthorn
      • 100,000 ha: restoring mangroves
      • 100,000 ha: ravine reclamation (tree planting)
      • 100,000 ha: eco-restoration of abandoned mines
    • Sub-Mission 4: Agroforestry and Social Forestry (increasing biomass and creating carbon sink): 3,000,000 ha[iv] and 9,600 Rs Crores ($1,510,386,240)
    • Sub-Mission 5: Restoration of Wetlands: 100,000 ha and 600 Rs Crores ($94,399,140)
  • National Agroforestry Policy (2014)
    • Notes that agroforestry can play a large part in meeting the national goal of increasing forest/tree cover to 33%[2] from the current <25%
      • State of Forest Report 2013 has forest cover at 21.23% = 69,789,800 ha (land area = 297,319,000 ha)
        • The 33% goal (98,115,270 ha) would require an increase of 28,325,470 ha forest cover
  • State of Forest Report (2013)
    • Chapter 7: Trees in Agroforestry Systems in India
    • Repot of the Task Force on Greening India for Livelihood Security and Sustainable Development, Planning Commission (2001) – agroforestry potential consists of 10 Mha (irrigated lands), 18 Mha (rain-fed area) (total: 28 Mha)

Restoration Target: 9,400,000 ha

  • Silviculture: 4,500,000 ha
  • Improved Fallow: 600,000 ha
  • ANR: 800,000 ha
  • A/R: 300,000 ha
  • Mangrove: 100,000 ha
  • Agroforestry: 3,000,000 ha
  • Wetlands: 100,000 ha

[1] Cabinet committee on economic affairs approved the plan

[2] Through large-scale afforestation, social forestry, farm forestry, agroforestry & with no timeframe specified to achieve this target (2010)

[i] MOEF GIM presentation – page 11; [ii] GIM – page 7; [iii] GIM – page 8-10; [iv] GIM – page 11-12

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Restoration Target: 1,000,000 ha

[1] Project began before 2010 pledge cutoff date but finished in Dec. 2012

[i] GEF – project ID: 4942 – page 2


GEF (06/07/2012). Integrated Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Services Improvement Project. Project Identification Form. http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/Multi%20Focal%20Area/India%20-%20(4942)%20-%20Integrated%20Biodiversity%20Conservation%20and%20Ecosystem/4-30-12%20-%20Updated%20PIF%20doc.pdf

GIM (National Mission for a Green India) (2011). Government of India, Ministry of Environment & Forests, New Delhi, India.

MOEF GIM presentation (02/22/2011). National Mission For A Green India, Under the National Action Plan on Climate Change, Presentation to The Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change. Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/public-information/GIM%20presentation%20Feb%2022%202011.pdf

National Action Plan on Climate Change (2011). Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change, Government of India. http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/home/Pg01-52.pdf

Sethi, Neha (02/20/2014). CCEA approves 46,000 Rs crore Green India Mission. Livemint. http://www.livemint.com/Politics/vmQa48zjStIKQiLx5m6wWN/CCEA-approves-46000-crore-Green-India-Mission.html