Existing domestic restoration targets

Existing targets:

1,667,200 ha

Forest land

Land where forest is, or is planned to become, the dominant land use

If the land is without trees, there are two options:

Planted forests and woodlots

Planting of trees on formerly forested land. Native species or exotics and for various purposes, fuel- wood, timber, building, poles, fruit production, etc.

Existing restoration targets

500,000 ha

600,000 ha

Total: 1,100,000 ha

Natural regeneration

Natural regeneration of formerly forested land. Often the site is highly degraded and no longer able to fulfill its past function – e.g. agriculture. If the site is heavily degraded and no longer has seed sources, some planting will probably be required.

Existing restoration targets

0 ha

If the land  is degraded forests:


Enhancement of existing forests and woodlands of diminished quality and stocking, e.g., by reducing fire and grazing and by liberation thinning, enrichment planting, etc.

Existing restoration targets

200,000 ha

235,000 ha

100,000 ha

6,200 ha

Total: 541,200 ha

Agricultural land

Land which is being managed to produce food

If the land  is under permanent management:


Establishment and management of trees on active agricultural land (under shifting agriculture), either through planting or regeneration, to improve crop productivity, provide dry season fodder, increase soil fertility, enhance water retention, etc.

Existing restoration targets

26,000 ha

If it is under intermittent management:

Improved fallow

Establishment and management of trees on fallow agricultural land to improve productivity, e.g. through fire control, extending the fallow period, etc., with the knowledge and intention that eventually this land will revert back to active agriculture.

Existing restoration targets

0 ha

Protective land and buffers

Land that is vulnerable to, or critical in safeguarding against, catastrophic events

If degraded mangrove:

Mangrove restoration

Establishment or enhancement of mangroves along coastal areas and in estuaries.

Existing restoration targets

0 ha

If other protective land or buffer:

Watershed protection and erosion control

Establishment and enhancement of forests on very steep sloping land, along water courses, in areas that naturally flood and around critical water bodies.

Existing restoration targets

0 ha

More information

Detailed Analysis: Relevant Content for Ghana's Domestic Plans and Multilateral Programs

REDD+ Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP)

  • R-PP (Dec. 2010) Section 2b REDD Strategy Options[i]
  • Theme B: Wider aspects of forest policy including agro-forestry and other carbon conserving activities
    • Candidate Strategy K: Expansion of agroforestry, tree crops, biofuels and agro-industries
    • Activity: working group on low-carbon agro-industrial development

[i] R-PP - page 46

National Climate Strategies & Plans

  • Forestry Development Master Plan 1996-2020 (FDMP)
    • 10,000 ha annual plantings within forest reserves over 20 years[1] (200,000 ha nationwide target on unproductive forest lands and in the savanna zone)[i]  (mix of indigenous and exotic species)
    • Program 2: Expansion and Diversification of Forest-Based products
      • Expected Output: at least 10% increase in the area of forest and tree cover through A/R, plantations, and agroforestry[ii]
        • Approximately 600,000 ha forest area increase[2]
      • Proposed projects:[iii]
        • Commercial Forest Plantation Development ($6.7 M)[iv]
        • Reforestation of Abandoned Cocoa Farms ($2 M)[v]
  • Ghana Forest and Wildlife Policy 2012 (FWP)
    • Policy Objective 2: Promoting the rehabilitation and restoration of degraded landscapes through forest plantation development, enrichment planting and community forestry[vi]
  • National Forest Plantation Development Program [3] (NFPDP)
    • Relaunched in 2010 (program duration unclear) with the annual planting goal of 30,000 ha [vii] to restore Ghana's lost vegetation
    • 26,919 ha forest plantations established from 2010-2012[viii]
  • National Forest Plantation Strategy 2015-2040[ix]
    • Target: 20,000 ha/year planting[4] = 500,000 ha
    • Target: 235,000 ha rehabilitation of existing forest plantations
    • Target: 100,000 ha enrichment planting in understocked forest reserves

Restoration Target: 1,635,000 ha

Silviculture: 200,000 ha

A/R, Plantations, agroforestry: 600,000 ha

Plantation: 500,000 ha

Plantation Rehabilitation (silviculture): 235,000 ha

Enrichment Plantings: 100,000 ha

[1] Indicator in FDMP: plantation acreage increased to 10% of permanent forest estate by 2020 (FDMP – page 20)

[2] If we use forest cover in 2000 at 6,094,000 ha then the target of increasing forest area by 10% would amount to planting 609,400 ha

[3] The NFPDP has been replaced by the NFPS

[4] Figure mentioned in Tropenbos slideshow – extrapolated over 25 year period as confirmed from government source

[i] FDMP – page 17; [ii] FDMP – page 23; [iii] FDMP – page 45; [iv] FDMP – page 56; [v] FDMP – page 54; [vi] FWP – page 22; [vii] FWP – page 5; [viii] NFPDP annual report 2012 – page 9; [ix] Tropenbos International – Ghana  – slide 8

Emission Reductions Program Idea Note (ER-PIN)

  • Ghana’s Emission Reductions Program (March 2014) for the Cocoa Forest Mosaic Landscape (Cocoa-Forest REDD Program)
    • Implementation will likely target 3-5 sub-landscapes that are approximately 50,000-200,000 ha each[1]
    • Timeframe: 2016-2036
    • 5.3: Activities under ER program
      • Strategy Option K: expansion of high biomass agroforestry/tree crop systems[i]
      • Strategy Option B: clarify rights regime (As part of policy reforms that will aid in using the most appropriate cocoa farming lands while promoting tree crops and agroforestry systems (NTFP agroforests, plantations, rubber)[ii]

[1] more specificity required to estimate an FLR target

[i] ER-PIN – page 28; [ii] ER-PIN – page 30

Forest Investment Program (FIP)

Investment Plan:

  • Project: Engaging Local Communities in REDD+/Enhancement of Carbon Stocks[i] (ELCIR+)
    • Comp 2: Promoting a sustainable cocoa and agroforestry landscape[ii] ($4 M grant + $1.5 M co-financing = $5.5 M)
      • 2.1: Integration of trees into the cocoa landscape
      • 2.2: Managing naturally occurring trees in food and other tree-crop farming systems à agroforestry and improved fallow[iii]
    • Comp 3: Support for community restoration of degraded forest and agricultural landscapes[iv] ($2 M grant + $2 M co-financing = $4 M)
    • ELCIR+ Appraisal Report (Oct. 2013): Result-Based Logical Framework:
      • Comp 1 - Output 1: 6,200 ha restoration[1] by 2018[v]
      • Comp 2 – Output 1: 16,000 increase in shade cocoa[2] by 2018[vi]
      • Comp 2 – Output 2: 10,000 ha under agroforestry by 2018[vii]
  • Ghana FIP World Bank Project: Enhancing Carbon Stocks in Natural Forests and Agroforest Landscapes (2014) (SAL Consult – Process Framework - Final Report)
    • Comp 2: Pilot Investments for Improved Forest and Landscape Management with Communities ($21.31 M)[viii]
      • 2.1: enhancing trees and CSA practices in agroforestry corridors and landscapes on farms with communities[ix]
      • 2.2 Pilot investments on forest reserves for reducing degradation, enrichment planting, nurseries, and plantation development for restoring degraded forest landscapes[x]

Restoration Target: 32,200 ha

Restoration: 6,200 ha

Agroforestry: 26,000 ha

[1] Restoration of degraded forest and establishing woodlots

[2] Implementation of technologies in shade trees: tree planting, enrichment planting, and natural regeneration

[i] FIP – page 83; [ii] FIP – page 86; [iii] FIP – page 87; [iv] FIP – page 87; [v] ELCIR+ appraisal report – page ii; [vi] ELCIR+ appraisal report – page iii; [vii] ELCIR+ appraisal report – page iii; [viii] SAL Consult – page 12; [ix] SAL Consult – page 15; [x] SAL Consult – page 16

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

  • 5221 (GEF Data Sheet): PSG-Additional Financing – Sustainable Land and Water Management Project (submission in 2014 and duration is  48 months)
    • Expected Outcomes[i]
      • Good LULUCF management practices in forest landscape
      • Good management practices in existing forests
    • Project Framework: Component 2: Water and Land Management[ii] (Finance: $8,310,000 grant + $57,000,000 co-financing = $65.31 M)
      • Expected outcomes: restored and enhanced carbon stocks in forests/non-forest lands[iii]
      • Expected outputs: enrichment planting and natural regeneration in degraded forest reserve areas[iv]

[i] GEF 5221 Data Sheet – page 1; [ii] GEF 5221 Data Sheet – page 2; [iii] GEF 5221 Data Sheet – page 2; [iv] GEF 5221 Data Sheet – page 3


ELCIR+ (Oct. 2013). Engaging Local Communities in REDD+/Enhancement of Carbon Stocks, Appraisal Report. African Development Bank Group

ER-PIN (Mar. 2014). Emission Reductions Program Idea Note, Ghana. https://www.forestcarbonpartnership.org/sites/fcp/files/2014/February/Ghana%20ER-PIN%20CF9.pdf

FDMP (1996). Forestry Development Master Plan, 1996-2020. Ministry of Lands and Forestry, Republic of Ghana. http://www.clientearth.org/external-resources/ghana/forests-and-wildlife/1996-forestry-development-master-plan.pdf

FIP (Oct. 2012). Ghana Investment Plan, Version 3.6. Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources. https://www.climateinvestmentfunds.org/cif/sites/climateinvestmentfunds.org/files/FIP_5_Ghana.pdf

FWP (2012). Ghana Forest and Wildlife Policy. Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, Accra, Ghana. http://www.clientearth.org/external-resources/ghana/forests-and-wildlife/2012-Forest-and-wildlife-policy-GHANA.pdf

GEF 5221 (2014). GEF Data Sheet: PSG-Additional Financing – Sustainable Land and Water Management Project. http://www.thegef.org/gef/project_detail?projID=5221

NFPDP (2012). Annual Report, 2012. MLNR. http://www.fcghana.org/assets/file/Publications/Forestry_Issues/National%20Forest%20Plantation%20Development%20Programme/Annual%20Reports/nfpdp_annual%20report_2012.pdf

R-PP (Dec. 2010). Readiness Preparation Proposal, Ghana, Final. FCPF. https://forestcarbonpartnership.org/sites/forestcarbonpartnership.org/files/Documents/PDF/Jan2011/Revised_Ghana_R-PP_2_Dec-2010.pdf

SAL Consult (Dec. 2014). Forest Investment Programme – Enhancing Carbon Stocks in Natural Forests and Agroforest Landscapes, Process Framework, Final Report. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2014/12/30/000333037_20141230234231/Rendered/PDF/RP17270AFR0RI000Box385406B00PUBLIC0.pdf

Tropenbos International (Nov. 2014). Functional Forestry Extension: The Missing Link in Promoting Plantation Development. First National Forest Conference. http://www.fornis.net/system/files/KS_Nketiah.pdf