Existing domestic restoration targets

Existing targets:

15,771,700 ha

Forest land

Land where forest is, or is planned to become, the dominant land use

If the land is without trees, there are two options:

Planted forests and woodlots

Planting of trees on formerly forested land. Native species or exotics and for various purposes, fuel- wood, timber, building, poles, fruit production, etc.

Existing restoration targets

15,300,000 ha

27,700 ha

218,000 ha

Total: 15,575,700 ha

Natural regeneration

Natural regeneration of formerly forested land. Often the site is highly degraded and no longer able to fulfill its past function – e.g. agriculture. If the site is heavily degraded and no longer has seed sources, some planting will probably be required.

Existing restoration targets

12,600 ha

If the land  is degraded forests:

Silviculture

Enhancement of existing forests and woodlands of diminished quality and stocking, e.g., by reducing fire and grazing and by liberation thinning, enrichment planting, etc.

Existing restoration targets

18,600 ha

40,000 ha

1,500 ha

Total: 60,100 ha

Agricultural land

Land which is being managed to produce food

If the land  is under permanent management:

Agroforestry

Establishment and management of trees on active agricultural land (under shifting agriculture), either through planting or regeneration, to improve crop productivity, provide dry season fodder, increase soil fertility, enhance water retention, etc.

Existing restoration targets

3,000 ha

If it is under intermittent management:

Improved fallow

Establishment and management of trees on fallow agricultural land to improve productivity, e.g. through fire control, extending the fallow period, etc., with the knowledge and intention that eventually this land will revert back to active agriculture.

Existing restoration targets

0

Protective land and buffers

Land that is vulnerable to, or critical in safeguarding against, catastrophic events

If degraded mangrove:

Mangrove restoration

Establishment or enhancement of mangroves along coastal areas and in estuaries.

Existing restoration targets

0

If other protective land or buffer:

Watershed protection and erosion control

Establishment and enhancement of forests on very steep sloping land, along water courses, in areas that naturally flood and around critical water bodies.

Existing restoration targets

20,300 ha

100,000 ha

Total: 120,300 ha

More information

Detailed Analysis: Relevant Content for China's Domestic Plans and Multilateral Programs

National Climate Strategies & Plans

  • SNCCC (2012) (Second National Communication on Climate Change of The PRC)
    • Increase forest area by 40,000,000 ha[i] by 2020[ii] relative to 2005 levels[1]
      • 2010-2020: A/R 15,330,000 ha
        • 2011-2015 target: 12.5 Mha forest area increase (A/R)[iii]
  • NCCP (China National Climate Change Programme) (2007) – no FLR targets
  • NBCSAP (China National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan) (2011-2030)
    • Priority Project 20: Mangrove forest ecosystem restoration[iv]
  • UNCCD (2006) (China National Report on the Implementation of the UNCCD)
    • National Action Programme[2] (NAP)[v]
      • Intermediate objective (2011-2020): 1.7 Mha forest shelterbelt, 11,000,000 ha sandy land enclosed for forest and grassland regeneration (ANR)[3]
      • Long-term objective (by 2050):
        • 34,000,000 ha forest and grassland established[4]
        • 1,800,000 ha[5] forest shelterbelt system established
        • 19,000,000 ha sand land enclosed for ANR (forest and grassland)[6]
  • SLCP (2008) (Sloping Land Conversion Program)
    • Retire and convert cropland to forest by 2010: 14.67 Mha ($40 B)
  • CCFP (Conversion of Cropland to Forests Program)
    • Pilot & Phase 1: 1999-2007
    • Phase 2: 2008-2016 (not enough info for period to infer an FLR target)
    • To date (2014): 27.55 Mha tree plantations[7]
      • 9.06 Mha retired then afforested cropland (goal: 14.67 Mha)
      • 15.8 Mha afforested ‘barren’ lands (goal: 17.33 Mha
      • 2.68 Mha ANR of remote mountainous areas
  • 12FYP (12th Five Year Plan) (2011-2015)
    • Achieve national forest cover: 21.66%[vi] (202,010,040 ha[8])
    • A/R: 12.5 Mha[vii]
  • FAP (China Forestry Action Plan to Deal with Climate Change)
    • 2011-2020[viii]
      • Annual afforestation: 5 Mha to reach 23% national forest coverage (23% = 214,507,430 ha (+12,497,390 ha[9] from 21.66% target in 2011-2015))
        • To reach 40 Mha forest area increase from 2005
    • 2021-2050
      • Increase national forest area to 47 Mha (+7,000,000 ha)
      • Achieve national forest cover: 26% by 2050[ix]
  • China National Timber Strategic Reserve Production Base Plan (2013-2020)
    • 14 Mha by 2020[x] (not enough information to count as separate FLR target from 40 Mha national target)
      • 4.5 Mha new plantations
      • 5 Mha improvement management of existing mature forests
      • 4.5 Mha intensive management of young forests
  • (NFPP) Natural Forest Protection Program (2000-2010)[10]
    • 8.7 Mha by 2010 A/R
    • Up to 2009: 2.66 Mha plantations; 3.19 Mha forests via aerial seeding; 12.08 Mha ANR via area closure

Restoration Target: 15,330,000 ha

[1] The SNCCC states that China afforested 24.67 Mha from 2006-2010 (SNCCC, p. 17) which indicates that to reach the 40 Mha pledge China would commit to A/R for an area of 15.33 Mha between 2010-2020.

[2] The UNCCD-NAP figures will not be included in the FLR targets until they can be verified as  separate from the national 40 Mha

[3] Not included – assumed to be part of 40 Mha target already counted above

[4] Not included due to lack of differentiation between figures for forest vs. grassland ANR

[5] 2050 targets are not included

[6] Not included due to lack of differentiation between figures for forest vs. grassland ANR

[7] UNFF – China Case Study: by end of 2009 the CCFP had afforested 9.06 Mha croplands, 14.67 Mha sloping/sandy croplands, 1.93 Mha ANR

[8] Based on land area only - the increase would be 6.56 Mha from 195.45 Mha (2008 forest cover indicated in SNCCC)

[9] This figure of approximately 12.5 Mha is the target for the 12FYP and operationalized at least partially by the FAP thus it will not be counted separately as an FLR target.

[10] Target ha’s achieved before 2010 would rule them out of FLR target consideration for commitments (assuming the program is on schedule)

[i] SNCCC – page 14, 101, 121, 122; [ii] PRC (2010) – page 1; [iii] SNCCC – page 122; [iv] NBCSAP – page 44, 45; [v] UNCCD – page 12, 13; [vi] SNCCC – page 122 & 12FYP – page 4; [vii] SFA – forestry and climate change & 12FYP – page 30 & Official 12FYP – Title VI of green development and construction of a resource-saving and environment-friendly society; [viii] FAP – Yang et al. Combating Climate Change: What Will China’s Forestry Industry Do?; [ix] FAP – Yang et al. Combating Climate Change: What Will China’s Forestry Industry Do?; [x] http://www.pulpapernews.com/2014/08/china-to-establish-timber-reserves-of-over-14-million-hectares-by-2020

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

  • 2634 Project Executive Summary (PES): Guangxi Integrated  Forestry Development and Biodiversity Conservation (est. start 2006 – duration 6 years)
    • Finance: $5.6 M grant + $199.33 M co-financing = $204.93 M[i]
    • 200,000 ha timber plantations ($171.1 M)[ii]
    • 118,000 ha increased forest cover ($18.67 M)[iii]
      • 100,000 ha increased forest cover for watershed protection (1/3 enrichment planting & 2/3 ANR)
      • 18,000 multiple use forest plantation
  • 2766: PIF - Integrated Ecosystem and Water Resources Management in the Baiyangdian Basin (2008-2013) ($2.975 M grant + $275.436 M co-financing = $278.411 M)
    • 20,300 ha watershed reforestation[iv]
  • 3483: PIF - Forestry and Ecological Restoration in Three Northwest Provinces (formerly Silk Road Ecosystem Restoration Project) (2008-2014)
    • Comp 1: 6-8 ecosystem restoration demonstration sites ($1.1 M grant + $48.4 M co-financing = $49.5 M)[v]
  • 5139: PIF - Sustainable Forest Management to Enhance the Resilience of Forests to Climate Change (2013 – duration: 72 months) ($7.1 M grant + $48.4 M co-financing = $55.5 M)
    • 40,000 ha SFM (reforestation of damaged forests, restoration and silvicultural transformation of monoculture forests, and natural regeneration)[vi]
  • 5142: PIF - Sustainable and Climate Resilient Land Management in Western PRC (2014 – duration: 3 years) ($3.65 M grant + $12.4 M co-financing = $16.05 M)
    • 1,500 ha enrichment planting on forested land[vii]
    • 3,000 ha SLM (pilot ecosystem restoration in agricultural, forest, grassland, and animal husbandry ecosystems)[viii]

Restoration Target: 382,800 ha

Plantation: 218,000 ha

Watershed: 120,300 ha

SFM: 40,000 ha

Silviculture: 1,500 ha

Agroforestry: 3,000 ha

[i] GEF 2634 PES – page 1; [ii] GEF 2634 PES – page 4; [iii] GEF 2634 PES – page 4; [iv] GEF 2766 PIF – page 2; [v] GEF 3483 PIF – page 1; [vi] GEF 5139 PIF – page 2; [vii] GEF 5142 PIF – page 2; [viii] GEF 5142 PIF – page 8

World Bank

  • HFRDP (Hunan Forest Restoration and Development Project) (P125021) (2013)
    • Timeframe: 2013-2019
    • Finance: $80 M world bank + $ 25.2 M non-bank sources = $115.2 M
    • Component 1- Reforestation: 58,900 ha by 2019[i] ($103.7 M)
      • Reforestation of denuded area: 27,700 ha
      • Degraded forest restoration: 18,600 ha
      • ANR: 12,600 ha
    • Results to date

Restoration Target: 58,900 ha

Reforestation: 27,700 ha

Restoration: 18,600 ha

ANR: 12,600 ha

[i] HFRDP – page 2, 3

Sources

12FYP (2011). 12th Five Year Plan. http://www.gov.cn/2011lh/content_1825838_7.htm 

CCFP (2014). China’s Conversion of Cropland to Forest Program for Household Delivery of Ecosystem Services: How Important is a Local Implementation Regime to Survival Rate Outcomes. Forests  5(9), 2345-2376. Full Text: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CCoQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mdpi.com%2F1999-4907%2F5%2F9%2F2345%2Fpdf&ei=tjbiVNHFN8WigwT54YHACw&usg=AFQjCNEtPBvcazqaRcAbVMaV2xbugzDtLw&sig2=GSGf3OyANwdOSuv542pzrA&bvm=bv.85970519,d.eXY

FAP (2009). China Forestry Action Plan to Deal with Climate Change. State Forestry Administration, Beijing. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3357702/#CR12

GEF 2634 (2006). Project Executive Summary: Guangxi Integrated Forestry Development and Biodiversity Conservation. GEF. http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/Biodiversity/China%20-%20Guangxi%20Integrated%20Forestry%20Development%20and%20Biodiversity%20Conservation/5-1-06%20Guangxi%20GEF%20ExSummary%204-27-06.doc

GEF 2766 (2008). Integrated Ecosystem and Water Resources Management in the Baiyangdian Basin. http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/Biodiversity/China%20-%20Integrated%20Ecosystem%20Restoration%20and%20Biodiversity%20Conservation%20of%20the%20Baiyangdian%20Lake/01-22-08%20PIF%20ADB%20China%20Baiyangdian%20(Resubmission)%2021Jan08.doc

GEF 3483 (2008). PIF Forestry and Ecological Restoration in Three Northwest Provinces (formerly Silk Road Ecosystem Restoration Project). http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/Land%20Degradation/China%20-%20PRC-GEF%20Partnership-Silk%20Road%20Ecosystem%20Restoration%20Project%20(ID3483)/06-20-08%20PIF%20document.doc

GEF 5139 (2013). Sustainable Forest Management to Enhance the Resilience of Forests to Climate Change. http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/Multi%20Focal%20Area/China%20-%20(5139)%20-%20Sustainable%20Forest%20Management%20to%20Enhance%20the%20Resil/China%20SFM%20PIF%20Resubmission%205%20April%202013.pdf

GEF 5142 (2014). PIF: Sustainable and Climate Resilient Land Management in Western PRC. http://www.thegef.org/gef/sites/thegef.org/files/gef_prj_docs/GEFProjectDocuments/Land%20Degradation/China%20-%20(5142)%20-%20Sustainable%20and%20Climate%20Resilient%20Land%20Management/1-24-13%20-%20Rev%20PIF%20doc.pdf

HFRDP (2013). Implementation Status Results Report: Sequence 01 - Hunan Forest Restoration and Development Project (P125021). http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/EAP/2013/05/21/090224b081bd529f/1_0/Rendered/PDF/China000Hunan00Report000Sequence001.pdf

NBCSAP (2011). China National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan. http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/cn/cn-nbsap-v2-en.pdf

PRC (2010). China’s pledge to the Copenhagen Accord. Department of Climate Change, National Development & Reform Commission of China. http://unfccc.int/files/meetings/cop_15/copenhagen_accord/application/pdf/chinacphaccord_app2.pdf

PulpPaperNews (2014). China to establish timber reserves of over 14 million hectares by 2020. http://www.pulpapernews.com/2014/08/china-to-establish-timber-reserves-of-over-14-million-hectares-by-2020

SFA (2014). Forestry and Climate Change. http://english.forestry.gov.cn/index.php/climate-change/248-forestry-and-climate-change

(SLCP) Bennett & Xu (2008). China’s Sloping Land Conversion Program: Institutional Innovation or Business as Usual? Ecological Economics 65(4): 699-711. http://www.cifor.org/pes/publications/pdf_files/China_paper.pdf

SNCCC (2012). Second National Communication on Climate Change of The People’s Republic of China. http://www.ccchina.gov.cn/archiver/ccchinaen/UpFile/Files/Default/20130218145208096785.pdf

UNCCD (2006). China National Report on the Implementation of the UNCCD. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CC0QFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.unccd-prais.com%2FUploads%2FGetReportPdf%2Fcbc38bc4-5cbe-4312-aace-a0fa014a4aa7&ei=lmPiVLW0CYjBggTf0YDQAg&usg=AFQjCNFLzokuIIOnPFeOm_b8Oyg47AFkjQ&sig2=aYknew59lhBmnEWa06engQ&bvm=bv.85970519,d.eXY

UNFF (2010). China’s Strategy and Financing For Forestry Sustainable Development. United Nations Forum on Forests Ad Hoc Expert Group on forest financing, Country Case Study. http://www.un.org/esa/forests/pdf/aheg/aheg1/China_case_study.pdf

Yang et al. (2010). Combating Climate Change: What Will China’s Forestry Industry Do? Ambio 39(4): 340-343. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3357702/#CR12